An Application of Gramsci´s “Who Benefits?” to High-Stakes Testing

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Ellen Brantlinger


To discern reasons behind the spate of official state and federal mandates for high-stakes tests as well as other stringent standards and accountability measures, in this article, I turn to what Italian Marxist, Antonio Gramsci claimed should be the perennially essential question to ask related to social actions; that is, "Who benefits?" I make the case that various forms of dominance are established or strengthened through recent state and federal legislation.

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