“Troublemaking,” “Making Trouble,” and “Making It” Through Institutionalized Schooling: Critical Pedagogy as a Transformational Exodus

Cesar A. Rossatto, Cecilia E. Rivas, Daniel B. Heiman, Juanita Esparza


How does institutionalized schooling compromise the social fabric?  Many children are learning helplessness and are labeled “troublemakers” as a form of violence which is playing itself out in classrooms across the US. They are becoming “victims” as they are oppressed by the stranglehold of  high-stakes testing movements and other rigid, top-down hegemonic structures that fervently strive to dominate, subjugate, and alienate those that supposedly are not equipped to “make it” in the post-modern arena.  By the same token, often, those that are “successful” also succumb to acts of violence as they conform or react to oppressive educational practices; thus, this article and educational study reveal the unfolding consequences of this kind of oppression.


Critical Pedagogy; Standardized Testing; Hegemony; Violence; Neoliberalism; Postmodernism; Oppression; Assessment

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ISSN 1920-4175 Critical Education